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git cherry-pick简介  

2012-06-08 19:11:05|  分类: 版本控制 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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本文编辑整理自:
git cherry-pick用于把另一个本地分支的commit修改应用到当前分支。
实际问题 
  在本地 master 分支上做了一个commit ( 38361a68138140827b31b72f8bbfd88b3705d77a ) , 如何把它放到 本地 old_cc 分支上? 
办法之一: 使用 cherry-pick.  根据git 文档:
Apply the changes introduced by some existing commits 
就是对已经存在的commit 进行apply (可以理解为再次提交)
简单用法
git cherry-pick <commit id>
例如:
$ git checkout old_cc
$ git cherry-pick 38361a68
1. 如果顺利,就会正常提交。结果:
Finished one cherry-pick.
# On branch old_cc
# Your branch is ahead of 'origin/old_cc' by 3 commits.
2. 如果在cherry-pick 的过程中出现了冲突
Automatic cherry-pick failed.  After resolving the conflicts,
mark the corrected paths with 'git add <paths>' or 'git rm <paths>'
and commit the result with: 

        git commit -c 15a2b6c61927e5aed6718de89ad9dafba939a90b

就跟普通的冲突一样,手工解决:
执行git status 看哪些文件出现冲突
$ git status 
both modified:      app/models/user.rb 
接着手动解决冲突的文件,然后通过git add把改到添加到索引,最后执行git commit提交修改。
$ vim app/models/user.rb   
$ git add app/models/user.rb
git commit -c <原commit号>
git-cherry-pick(1)
==================

NAME
----
git-cherry-pick - Apply the changes introduced by some existing commits

SYNOPSIS
--------
'git cherry-pick' [--edit] [-n] [-m parent-number] [-s] [-x] [--ff] <commit>...

DESCRIPTION
-----------

Given one or more existing commits, apply the change each one
introduces, recording a new commit for each.  This requires your
working tree to be clean (no modifications from the HEAD commit).

When it is not obvious how to apply a change, the following
happens:

1. The current branch and `HEAD` pointer stay at the last commit
   successfully made.
2. The `CHERRY_PICK_HEAD` ref is set to point at the commit that
   introduced the change that is difficult to apply.
3. Paths in which the change applied cleanly are updated both
   in the index file and in your working tree.
4. For conflicting paths, the index file records up to three
   versions, as described in the "TRUE MERGE" section of
   linkgit:git-merge[1].  The working tree files will include
   a description of the conflict bracketed by the usual
   conflict markers `<<<<<<<` and `>>>>>>>`.
5. No other modifications are made.

See linkgit:git-merge[1] for some hints on resolving such
conflicts.

OPTIONS
-------
<commit>...::
Commits to cherry-pick.
For a more complete list of ways to spell commits, see
linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
Sets of commits can be passed but no traversal is done by
default, as if the '--no-walk' option was specified, see
linkgit:git-rev-list[1].

-e::
--edit::
With this option, 'git cherry-pick' will let you edit the commit
message prior to committing.

-x::
When recording the commit, append to the original commit
message a note that indicates which commit this change
was cherry-picked from.  Append the note only for cherry
picks without conflicts.  Do not use this option if
you are cherry-picking from your private branch because
the information is useless to the recipient.  If on the
other hand you are cherry-picking between two publicly
visible branches (e.g. backporting a fix to a
maintenance branch for an older release from a
development branch), adding this information can be
useful.

-r::
It used to be that the command defaulted to do `-x`
described above, and `-r` was to disable it.  Now the
default is not to do `-x` so this option is a no-op.

-m parent-number::
--mainline parent-number::
Usually you cannot cherry-pick a merge because you do not know which
side of the merge should be considered the mainline.  This
option specifies the parent number (starting from 1) of
the mainline and allows cherry-pick to replay the change
relative to the specified parent.

-n::
--no-commit::
Usually the command automatically creates a sequence of commits.
This flag applies the changes necessary to cherry-pick
each named commit to your working tree and the index,
without making any commit.  In addition, when this
option is used, your index does not have to match the
HEAD commit.  The cherry-pick is done against the
beginning state of your index.
+
This is useful when cherry-picking more than one commits'
effect to your index in a row.

-s::
--signoff::
Add Signed-off-by line at the end of the commit message.

--ff::
If the current HEAD is the same as the parent of the
cherry-pick'ed commit, then a fast forward to this commit will
be performed.

--strategy=<strategy>::
Use the given merge strategy.  Should only be used once.
See the MERGE STRATEGIES section in linkgit:git-merge[1]
for details.

-X<option>::
--strategy-option=<option>::
Pass the merge strategy-specific option through to the
merge strategy.  See linkgit:git-merge[1] for details.

EXAMPLES
--------
git cherry-pick master::

Apply the change introduced by the commit at the tip of the
master branch and create a new commit with this change.

git cherry-pick ..master::
git cherry-pick ^HEAD master::

Apply the changes introduced by all commits that are ancestors
of master but not of HEAD to produce new commits.

git cherry-pick master{tilde}4 master{tilde}2::

Apply the changes introduced by the fifth and third last
commits pointed to by master and create 2 new commits with
these changes.

git cherry-pick -n master~1 next::

Apply to the working tree and the index the changes introduced
by the second last commit pointed to by master and by the last
commit pointed to by next, but do not create any commit with
these changes.

git cherry-pick --ff ..next::

If history is linear and HEAD is an ancestor of next, update
the working tree and advance the HEAD pointer to match next.
Otherwise, apply the changes introduced by those commits that
are in next but not HEAD to the current branch, creating a new
commit for each new change.

git rev-list --reverse master \-- README | git cherry-pick -n --stdin::

Apply the changes introduced by all commits on the master
branch that touched README to the working tree and index,
so the result can be inspected and made into a single new
commit if suitable.

The following sequence attempts to backport a patch, bails out because
the code the patch applies to has changed too much, and then tries
again, this time exercising more care about matching up context lines.

------------
$ git cherry-pick topic^             <1>
$ git diff                           <2>
$ git reset --merge ORIG_HEAD        <3>
$ git cherry-pick -Xpatience topic^  <4>
------------
<1> apply the change that would be shown by `git show topic^`.
In this example, the patch does not apply cleanly, so
information about the conflict is written to the index and
working tree and no new commit results.
<2> summarize changes to be reconciled
<3> cancel the cherry-pick.  In other words, return to the
pre-cherry-pick state, preserving any local modifications you had in
the working tree.
<4> try to apply the change introduced by `topic^` again,
spending extra time to avoid mistakes based on incorrectly matching
context lines.
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