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file_operations简介  

2012-05-07 08:06:46|  分类: Linux内核 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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原文:http://tldp.org/LDP/lkmpg/2.4/html/c577.htm

The file_operations structure is defined in linux/fs.h, and holds pointers to functions defined by the driver that perform various operations on the device. Each field of the structure corresponds to the address of some function defined by the driver to handle a requested operation.

struct file_operations {

For example, every character driver needs to define a function that reads from the device. The file_operations structure holds the address of the module's function that performs that operation. Here is what the definition looks like for kernel 2.4.2:

 struct file_operations {

       struct module *owner;

       loff_t (*llseek) (struct file *, loff_t, int);

       ssize_t (*read) (struct file *, char *, size_t, loff_t *);

       ssize_t (*write) (struct file *, const char *, size_t, loff_t *);

       int (*readdir) (struct file *, void *, filldir_t);

       unsigned int (*poll) (struct file *, struct poll_table_struct *);

       int (*ioctl) (struct inode *, struct file *, unsigned int, unsigned long);

       int (*mmap) (struct file *, struct vm_area_struct *);

       int (*open) (struct inode *, struct file *);

       int (*flush) (struct file *);

       int (*release) (struct inode *, struct file *);

       int (*fsync) (struct file *, struct dentry *, int datasync);

       int (*fasync) (int, struct file *, int);

       int (*lock) (struct file *, int, struct file_lock *);

    ssize_t (*readv) (struct file *, const struct iovec *, unsigned long,

          loff_t *);

    ssize_t (*writev) (struct file *, const struct iovec *, unsigned long,

          loff_t *);

    };

Some operations are not implemented by a driver. For example, a driver that handles a video card won't need to read from a directory structure. The corresponding entries in the file_operations structure should be set to NULL.

*owner指向拥有该结构的模块的指针,避免正在操作时被卸载,一般为初始化为THIS_MODULES

*llseek函数指针用来修改文件当前的读写位置,返回新位置

*read函数指针用来从设备中同步读取数据。读取成功返回读取的字节数。设置为NULL,调用时返回-EINVAL 

*aio_read函数指针初始化一个异步的读取操作,为NULL时全部通过read处理

*write函数指针用来向设备发送数据。 

*aio_write函数指针用来初始化一个异步的写入操作。 

*readdir函数指针仅用于读取目录,对于设备文件,该字段为 NULL

*poll函数指针返回一个位掩码,用来指出非阻塞的读取或写入是否可能。把pool设置为 NULL,设备会被认为即可读也可写。

*ioctl函数指针提供一种执行设备特殊命令的方法。不设置入口点,返回-ENOTTY

*unlocked_ioctl函数指针只是在不使用BLK的文件系统,才此种函数指针代替ioctl

*unlocked_ioctl函数只是在64位系统上,32位的ioctl调用,将使用此函数指针代替

*mmap指针函数用于请求将设备内存映射到进程地址空间。如果无此方法,将访问-ENODEV。

*open指针函数用于打开设备如果为空,设备的打开操作永远成功,但系统不会通知驱动程序

*flush指针函数用于在进程关闭设备文件描述符副本时,执行并等待,若设置为NULL,内核将忽略用户应用程序的请求。

*release函数指针在file结构释放时,将被调用

*fsync函数指针用于刷新待处理的数据,如果驱动程序没有实现,fsync调用将返回-EINVAL

*aio_fsync函数对应异步fsync

*fasync函数指针用于通知设备FASYNC标志发生变化,如果设备不支持异步通知,该字段可以为NULL

*lock用于实现文件锁,设备驱动常不去实现此lock

    ssize_t (*readv) (struct file *, const struct iovec *, unsigned long, loff_t *);

    ssize_t (*writev) (struct file *, const struct iovec *, unsigned long, loff_t *);

    // readv和writev 分散/聚集型的读写操作,实现进行涉及多个内存区域的单次读或写操作。

    ssize_t (*sendfile) (struct file *, loff_t *, size_t, read_actor_t, void *);

    // 实现sendfile调用的读取部分,将数据从一个文件描述符移到另一个,设备驱动通常将其设置为 NULL

    ssize_t (*sendpage) (struct file *, struct page *, int, size_t, loff_t *, int);

    // 实现sendfile调用的另一部分,内核调用将其数据发送到对应文件,每次一个数据页,设备驱动通常将其设置为NULL

    unsigned long (*get_unmapped_area)(struct file *, unsigned long, unsigned long, unsigned long, unsigned    long);

    // 在进程地址空间找到一个合适的位置,以便将底层设备中的内存段映射到该位置。大部分驱动可将其设置为NULL

    int (*check_flags)(int);

    // 允许模块检查传递给fcntl(F_SETEL…)调用的标志

    int (*dir_notify)(struct file *filp, unsigned long arg);

    // 应用程序使用fcntl来请求目录改变通知时,调用该方法。仅对文件系统有效,驱动程序不必实现。

    int (*flock) (struct file *, int, struct file_lock *);

    // 实现文件锁

There is a gcc extension that makes assigning to this structure more convenient. You'll see it in modern drivers, and may catch you by surprise. This is what the new way of assigning to the structure looks like:

    struct file_operations fops = {
       read: device_read,
       write: device_write,
       open: device_open,
       release: device_release
    };

However, there's also a C99 way of assigning to elements of a structure, and this is definitely preferred over using the GNU extension. The version of gcc I'm currently using, 2.95, supports the new C99 syntax. You should use this syntax in case someone wants to port your driver. It will help with compatibility:

 struct file_operations fops = {

       .read = device_read,

       .write = device_write,

       .open = device_open,

       .release = device_release

    };

   

The meaning is clear, and you should be aware that any member of the structure which you don't explicitly assign will be initialized to NULL by gcc.

A pointer to a struct file_operations is commonly named fops.

The file structure

Each device is represented in the kernel by a file structure, which is defined in linux/fs.h. Be aware that a file is a kernel level structure and never appears in a user space program. It's not the same thing as a FILE, which is defined by glibc and would never appear in a kernel space function. Also, its name is a bit misleading; it represents an abstract open `file', not a file on a disk, which is represented by a structure named inode.

A pointer to a struct file is commonly named filp. You'll also see it refered to as struct file file. Resist the temptation.

Go ahead and look at the definition of file. Most of the entries you see, like struct dentry aren't used by device drivers, and you can ignore them. This is because drivers don't fill file directly; they only use structures contained in file which are created elsewhere.

Registering A Device

As discussed earlier, char devices are accessed through device files, usually located in /dev[1]. The major number tells you which driver handles which device file. The minor number is used only by the driver itself to differentiate which device it's operating on, just in case the driver handles more than one device.

Adding a driver to your system means registering it with the kernel. This is synonymous with assigning it a major number during the module's initialization. You do this by using the register_chrdev function, defined by linux/fs.h.

 
   int register_chrdev(unsigned int major, const char *name,struct file_operations *fops);     

where unsigned int major is the major number you want to request, const char *name is the name of the device as it'll appear in /proc/devices and struct file_operations *fopsis a pointer to the file_operations table for your driver. A negative return value means the registertration failed. Note that we didn't pass the minor number toregister_chrdev. That's because the kernel doesn't care about the minor number; only our driver uses it.

Now the question is, how do you get a major number without hijacking one that's already in use? The easiest way would be to look through Documentation/devices.txt and pick an unused one. That's a bad way of doing things because you'll never be sure if the number you picked will be assigned later. The answer is that you can ask the kernel to assign you a dynamic major number.

If you pass a major number of 0 to register_chrdev, the return value will be the dynamically allocated major number. The downside is that you can't make a device file in advance, since you don't know what the major number will be. There are a couple of ways to do this. First, the driver itself can print the newly assigned number and we can make the device file by hand. Second, the newly registered device will have an entry in /proc/devices, and we can either make the device file by hand or write a shell script to read the file in and make the device file. The third method is we can have our driver make the the device file using the mknod system call after a successful registration and rm during the call to cleanup_module.

Unregistering A Device

We can't allow the kernel module to be rmmod'ed whenever root feels like it. If the device file is opened by a process and then we remove the kernel module, using the file would cause a call to the memory location where the appropriate function (read/write) used to be. If we're lucky, no other code was loaded there, and we'll get an ugly error message. If we're unlucky, another kernel module was loaded into the same location, which means a jump into the middle of another function within the kernel. The results of this would be impossible to predict, but they can't be very positive.

Normally, when you don't want to allow something, you return an error code (a negative number) from the function which is supposed to do it. With cleanup_module that's impossible because it's a void function. However, there's a counter which keeps track of how many processes are using your module. You can see what it's value is by looking at the 3rd field of /proc/modules. If this number isn't zero, rmmod will fail. Note that you don't have to check the counter from within cleanup_module because the check will be performed for you by the system call sys_delete_module, defined in linux/module.c. You shouldn't use this counter directly, but there are macros defined in linux/modules.h which let you increase, decrease and display this counter:

  • MOD_INC_USE_COUNT: Increment the use count.

  • MOD_DEC_USE_COUNT: Decrement the use count.

  • MOD_IN_USE: Display the use count.

It's important to keep the counter accurate; if you ever do lose track of the correct usage count, you'll never be able to unload the module; it's now reboot time, boys and girls. This is bound to happen to you sooner or later during a module's development.

chardev.c

The next code sample creates a char driver named chardev. You can cat its device file (or open the file with a program) and the driver will put the number of times the device file has been read from into the file. We don't support writing to the file (like echo "hi" > /dev/hello), but catch these attempts and tell the user that the operation isn't supported. Don't worry if you don't see what we do with the data we read into the buffer; we don't do much with it. We simply read in the data and print a message acknowledging that we received it.

Example 4-1. chardev.c

/*  chardev.c: Creates a read-only char device that says how many times

 *  you've read from the dev file

 *

 *  Copyright (C) 2001 by Peter Jay Salzman

 *

 *  08/02/2006 - Updated by Rodrigo Rubira Branco <rodrigo@kernelhacking.com>

 */


/* Kernel Programming */

#define MODULE

#define LINUX

#define __KERNEL__


#if defined(CONFIG_MODVERSIONS) && ! defined(MODVERSIONS)

   #include <linux/modversions.h>

   #define MODVERSIONS

#endif

#include <linux/kernel.h>

#include <linux/module.h>

#include <linux/fs.h>

#include <asm/uaccess.h>  /* for put_user */

#include <asm/errno.h>


/*  Prototypes - this would normally go in a .h file */

int init_module(void);

void cleanup_module(void);

static int device_open(struct inode *, struct file *);

static int device_release(struct inode *, struct file *);

static ssize_t device_read(struct file *, char *, size_t, loff_t *);

static ssize_t device_write(struct file *, const char *, size_t, loff_t *);


#define SUCCESS 0

#define DEVICE_NAME "chardev" /* Dev name as it appears in /proc/devices   */

#define BUF_LEN 80            /* Max length of the message from the device */



/* Global variables are declared as static, so are global within the file. */


static int Major;            /* Major number assigned to our device driver */

static int Device_Open = 0;  /* Is device open?  Used to prevent multiple

                                        access to the device */

static char msg[BUF_LEN];    /* The msg the device will give when asked    */

static char *msg_Ptr;


static struct file_operations fops = {

  .read = device_read,

  .write = device_write,

  .open = device_open,

  .release = device_release

};



/* Functions */


int init_module(void)

{

   Major = register_chrdev(0, DEVICE_NAME, &fops);


   if (Major < 0) {

     printk ("Registering the character device failed with %d\n", Major);

     return Major;

   }


   printk("<1>I was assigned major number %d.  To talk to\n", Major);

   printk("<1>the driver, create a dev file with\n");

   printk("'mknod /dev/hello c %d 0'.\n", Major);

   printk("<1>Try various minor numbers.  Try to cat and echo to\n");

   printk("the device file.\n");

   printk("<1>Remove the device file and module when done.\n");


   return 0;

}



void cleanup_module(void)

{

   /* Unregister the device */

   int ret = unregister_chrdev(Major, DEVICE_NAME);

   if (ret < 0) printk("Error in unregister_chrdev: %d\n", ret);

}



/* Methods */


/* Called when a process tries to open the device file, like

 * "cat /dev/mycharfile"

 */

static int device_open(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)

{

   static int counter = 0;

   if (Device_Open) return -EBUSY;


   Device_Open++;

   sprintf(msg,"I already told you %d times Hello world!\n", counter++);

   msg_Ptr = msg;

   MOD_INC_USE_COUNT;


   return SUCCESS;

}



/* Called when a process closes the device file */

static int device_release(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)

{

   Device_Open --;     /* We're now ready for our next caller */


   /* Decrement the usage count, or else once you opened the file, you'll

                    never get get rid of the module. */

   MOD_DEC_USE_COUNT;


   return 0;

}



/* Called when a process, which already opened the dev file, attempts to

   read from it.

*/

static ssize_t device_read(struct file *filp,

   char *buffer,    /* The buffer to fill with data */

   size_t length,   /* The length of the buffer     */

   loff_t *offset)  /* Our offset in the file       */

{

   /* Number of bytes actually written to the buffer */

   int bytes_read = 0;


   /* If we're at the end of the message, return 0 signifying end of file */

   if (*msg_Ptr == 0) return 0;


   /* Actually put the data into the buffer */

   while (length && *msg_Ptr)  {


        /* The buffer is in the user data segment, not the kernel segment;

         * assignment won't work.  We have to use put_user which copies data from

         * the kernel data segment to the user data segment. */

         put_user(*(msg_Ptr++), buffer++);


         length--;

         bytes_read++;

   }


   /* Most read functions return the number of bytes put into the buffer */

   return bytes_read;

}



/*  Called when a process writes to dev file: echo "hi" > /dev/hello */

static ssize_t device_write(struct file *filp,

   const char *buff,

   size_t len,

   loff_t *off)

{

   printk ("<1>Sorry, this operation isn't supported.\n");

   return -EINVAL;

}


MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");

Writing Modules for Multiple Kernel Versions

The system calls, which are the major interface the kernel shows to the processes, generally stay the same across versions. A new system call may be added, but usually the old ones will behave exactly like they used to. This is necessary for backward compatibility -- a new kernel version is not supposed to break regular processes. In most cases, the device files will also remain the same. On the other hand, the internal interfaces within the kernel can and do change between versions.

The Linux kernel versions are divided between the stable versions (n.$<$even number$>$.m) and the development versions (n.$<$odd number$>$.m). The development versions include all the cool new ideas, including those which will be considered a mistake, or reimplemented, in the next version. As a result, you can't trust the interface to remain the same in those versions (which is why I don't bother to support them in this book, it's too much work and it would become dated too quickly). In the stable versions, on the other hand, we can expect the interface to remain the same regardless of the bug fix version (the m number).

There are differences between different kernel versions, and if you want to support multiple kernel versions, you'll find yourself having to code conditional compilation directives. The way to do this to compare the macro LINUX_VERSION_CODE to the macro KERNEL_VERSION. In version a.b.c of the kernel, the value of this macro would be $2^{16}a+2^{8}b+c$. Be aware that this macro is not defined for kernel 2.0.35 and earlier, so if you want to write modules that support really old kernels, you'll have to define it yourself, like:

Example 4-2. some title

    #if LINUX_KERNEL_VERSION >= KERNEL_VERSION(2,2,0)

        #define KERNEL_VERSION(a,b,c) ((a)*65536+(b)*256+(c))

    #endif

Of course since these are macros, you can also use #ifndef KERNEL_VERSION to test the existence of the macro, rather than testing the version of the kernel.

Notes

[1]

This is by convention. When writing a driver, it's OK to put the device file in your current directory. Just make sure you place it in /dev for a production driver

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