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git rm简介  

2012-04-17 16:09:54|  分类: 版本控制 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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在git中我们可以通过git rm命令把一个文件删除,并把它从git的仓库管理系统中移除。但是注意最后要执行git commit才真正提交到git仓库
示例1
git rm 1.txt
删除1.txt文件,并把它从git的仓库管理系统中移除。
示例2
git rm -r myFolder
删除文件夹myFolder,并把它从git的仓库管理系统中移除。
示例3
$ git add 10.txt
$ git add -i
           staged     unstaged path
  1:        +0/-0      nothing 10.txt
  2:        +0/-0      nothing branch/t.txt
  3:        +0/-0      nothing branch/t2.txt

*** Commands ***
  1: [s]tatus     2: [u]pdate     3: [r]evert     4: [a]dd untracked
  5: [p]atch      6: [d]iff       7: [q]uit       8: [h]elp
What now> 7
Bye.
$ git rm --cached 10.txt
rm '10.txt'
$ ls
10.txt  2  3.txt  5.txt  readme.txt
$ git add -i
           staged     unstaged path
  1:        +0/-0      nothing branch/t.txt
  2:        +0/-0      nothing branch/t2.txt
*** Commands ***
  1: [s]tatus     2: [u]pdate     3: [r]evert     4: [a]dd untracked
  5: [p]atch      6: [d]iff       7: [q]uit       8: [h]elp
What now>
在通过 git add 10.txt 命令把文件10,txt添加到索引库中后,又通过 git rm --cached 10.txt 把文件10.txt从git的索引库中移除,但是对文件10.txt本身并不进行任何操作。
另外对于已经被git rm删除掉(还没被提交)的文件或目录,如果想取消其操作的话,可以首先通过git add -i的子命令revert从索引库中把它们剔除,然后用git checkout <文件>命令来达到取消的目录
关于git add请参考《git add详解
关于git checkout请参考《》

语法

git rm [-f | --force] [-n] [-r] [--cached] [--ignore-unmatch] [--quiet] [--] <file>…

DESCRIPTION

Remove files from the index, or from the working tree and the index. git rm will not remove a file from just your working directory. (There is no option to remove a file only from the working tree and yet keep it in the index; use /bin/rm if you want to do that.) The files being removed have to be identical to the tip of the branch, and no updates to their contents can be staged in the index, though that default behavior can be overridden with the -f option. When --cached is given, the staged content has to match either the tip of the branch or the file on disk, allowing the file to be removed from just the index.

OPTIONS

<file>…

Files to remove. Fileglobs (e.g. *.c) can be given to remove all matching files. If you want git to expand file glob characters, you may need to shell-escape them. A leading directory name (e.g. dir to remove dir/file1 and dir/file2) can be given to remove all files in the directory, and recursively all sub-directories, but this requires the -r option to be explicitly given.

-f
--force

Override the up-to-date check.

-n
--dry-run

Don’t actually remove any file(s). Instead, just show if they exist in the index and would otherwise be removed by the command.

-r

Allow recursive removal when a leading directory name is given.

--

This option can be used to separate command-line options from the list of files, (useful when filenames might be mistaken for command-line options).

--cached

Use this option to unstage and remove paths only from the index. Working tree files, whether modified or not, will be left alone.

--ignore-unmatch

Exit with a zero status even if no files matched.

-q
--quiet

git rm normally outputs one line (in the form of an rm command) for each file removed. This option suppresses that output.

DISCUSSION

The <file> list given to the command can be exact pathnames, file glob patterns, or leading directory names. The command removes only the paths that are known to git. Giving the name of a file that you have not told git about does not remove that file.

File globbing matches across directory boundaries. Thus, given two directories d and d2, there is a difference between using git rm 'd*' and git rm 'd/*', as the former will also remove all of directory d2.

REMOVING FILES THAT HAVE DISAPPEARED FROM THE FILESYSTEM

There is no option for git rm to remove from the index only the paths that have disappeared from the filesystem. However, depending on the use case, there are several ways that can be done.

Using “git commit -a”

If you intend that your next commit should record all modifications of tracked files in the working tree and record all removals of files that have been removed from the working tree with rm (as opposed to git rm), use git commit -a, as it will automatically notice and record all removals. You can also have a similar effect without committing by using git add -u.

Using “git add -A”

When accepting a new code drop for a vendor branch, you probably want to record both the removal of paths and additions of new paths as well as modifications of existing paths.

Typically you would first remove all tracked files from the working tree using this command:

git ls-files -z | xargs -0 rm -f

and then untar the new code in the working tree. Alternately you could rsync the changes into the working tree.

After that, the easiest way to record all removals, additions, and modifications in the working tree is:

git add -A

Other ways

If all you really want to do is to remove from the index the files that are no longer present in the working tree (perhaps because your working tree is dirty so that you cannot use git commit -a), use the following command:

git diff --name-only --diff-filter=D -z | xargs -0 git rm --cached

EXAMPLES

git rm Documentation/\*.txt

Removes all *.txt files from the index that are under the Documentation directory and any of its subdirectories.

Note that the asterisk * is quoted from the shell in this example; this lets git, and not the shell, expand the pathnames of files and subdirectories under the Documentation/ directory.

git rm -f git-*.sh

Because this example lets the shell expand the asterisk (i.e. you are listing the files explicitly), it does not remove subdir/git-foo.sh.

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